Life Cycle Management

Life Cycle Management (LCM) considers the comprehensive impact a product or service has on the environment. Life Cycle Management includes the product’s entire Life Cycle from Cradle to Grave including the environmental impact of the

  • extraction, processing, and delivery of raw materials;
  • processing the raw materials to produce a product or service;
  • transportation required to deliver the goods or services to the consumer;
  • use of the product or service by the consumer; and
  • lastly, disposal and recycling.

Read this page to discover how to

  • measure Sustainability;
  • find out about tools used in Sustainable Life Cycle Management; and
  • finally, determine why using our Sustainability Consultants makes good business sense.
"Sustainable development - development that does not destroy or undermine the ecological, economic, or social basis on which continued development depends - is the only viable pathway to a more secure and hopeful future for rich and poor alike."
—Maurice Strong (1925-2015), Opening Statement to the Rio Summit, 1992
Aftan Sustainability Consultants make sure your business prospers and grows as well.

Carbon and Water Footprints are Two Primary Measures of Environmental Sustainability

Carbon Footprint

Carbon Footprint measures greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which most significantly includes

  • carbon dioxide;
  • methane; and
  • nitrous oxide.
Three Scopes of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Scope 1: Direct Emissions result from fuels consumed by the company on site for equipment, vehicles, and heating.

Scope 2: Indirect Emissions resulting from power plants producing electricity purchased by the company.

Scope 3: Indirect Emissions resulting from fuels consumed outside of the company by

  • the supply chain;
  • suppliers of capital goods and leased assets;
  • transportation and distribution;
  • business travel;
  • consumers of products and services; and
  • lastly, product disposal and recycling.

Water Footprint

Direct Water Use is fresh water consumed during manufacturing or production of the product or service as well as for any support activities.

Indirect Water Use is fresh water consumed by the extraction and processing of raw materials.

Three Components of a Water Footprint

Green Water Footprint - The amount of water from precipitation that is used to make the product.

Blue Water Footprint - The amount of surface water and groundwater that is used to make the product.

Grey Water Footprint - The amount of freshwater that is used to dilute polluted production wastewater to meet water quality regulations.

Quantifying and Comparing Your Company's Environmental Profile to the Competition

In the next section I'll introduce some of the common tools used by companies with successful Life Cycle Management programs.

Life Cycle Management Tools

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

LCA is the primary tool to assess your company's current and ongoing environmental impacts.


  • principals and framework are defined in ISO 14040;
  • requirements and guidelines are defined in ISO 14044; and
  • is a procedure that can be used as part of an Environmental Management System as defined in ISO 14001 to demonstrate Life Cycle Thinking.

After defining the goal and scope of the analysis, an inventory is created to document inputs and outputs of the process, product, or system covering all life cycle phases including

  • Raw Materials Acquisition;
  • Transportation;
  • Manufacturing;
  • Operating;
  • Maintaining;
  • Recycling; and
  • lastly, Disposing.

LCA provides an organized, consistent approach to evaluate processes, products, or systems which leads to meaningful and useful Life Cycle Impact Assessments (LCIA)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)


  • uses the same organized, consistent approach to evaluate processes, products, or systems as for LCA. Each inventory item documented in the LCA is also costed for the LCCA.
  • quantifies the economic impact of each phase of the life cycle or the process, product, or system.
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)
  • Determines if the benefits derived from a course of action outweigh the associated costs.
  • Used to pick from several courses of action based upon each alternatives Cost/Benefit Ratio.
Material Flow Analysis (MFA) / Substance Flow Analysis (SFA)
MFA analyses the flow of materials through a process, across sectors, or in an ecosystem. With the addition of costs for the material flows, the result is Material Flow Cost Accounting. This tool is very useful in assessments of circularity.
Design for X (DfX)
DfX can be applied to any aspect of a product, process or company. In general, it means to Design for Excellence. It can include Design for Manufacturability, Sustainability, Cost, Yield, Inspection, Reliability, Procurement, Social Impact, or any number of business initiatives.

Why You Need Our Life Cycle Management Consultants

Translating Business Goals Into a Life Cycle Management Plan

You want to project your sincere concern for Corporate Environmental and Social Responsibility. There's a clear Business Case for Sustainability because consumers are increasingly purchasing from Green Companies. If you want to grow or even simply maintain market share, incorporating Life Cycle Thinking is important now. You also want to reduce the risk that companies consuming your products and services as part of their supply chain will seek alternative, greener sources in pursuit of their Sustainability Initiatives.

Life Cycle Management is the key to implementing Life Cycle Thinking. We listen to your business goals regarding what you want to achieve and communicate to your customers and stakeholders via advertising, label content, and other means. We may have recommendations you may not have considered. We then design a process to achieve your goals.

Making Sure Benefits of Implementing Sustainability Outweigh the Costs

As experienced business people, we realize profitability is important! Therefore, ROI is not ignored in our approach to Sustainability. We also realize that the quality of your products and services are integral to your brand

Supplementing and Coordinating Existing Staff

Life Cycle Assessment Analyses are tedious and time-consuming even for experienced Sustainability experts. Engineers in well-run, lean, and efficient companies already have a full plate with their regularly assigned duties. When your engineering department realizes the scope and complexity of a Life Cycle Assessment study, they may be tempted to throw up their hands. Furthermore, you don't want to sacrifice other key aspects of your operations for the sake of Sustainability. Instead, your Sustainability Initiative should complement and enhance your overall operations.

Competent Sustainability Consulting Engineers can build the models, expedite obtaining data from available databases as well as identifying other required data and methods for data collection. We work with and train your in-house personnel to make them as independent as possible going forward.

Highest Quality Professional Sustainability Consultants

Your common sense tells you the qualities you want in your Sustainability Consultant.

  • Appreciation That You're Running a Business
    We are experienced business people dedicated to improving and preserving the environment who never lose sight of the importance of quality and profitability.
  • Ability to Collect and Analyze Data Using Complex Models
    We have decades of experience in Design, Manufacturing, Data Analysis, and Continuous Improvement.
  • Problem Solving in Addition to Problem Identification
    As engineers, we have a deeper understanding of the causes of problems Life Cycle Management tools identify. Therefore, instead of saying "here's a problem you need to fix" we say "here's a problem and here's a suggested way to fix it".
  • Ability to Clearly Express Ideas and Conclusions Through Reports and Presentations
    We have top management experience. We understand reports and presentations.

Contact Us Online or Call Us at 610-914-1356 today.

Life Cycle Management & ISO 14001 Certification Expert and Sustainability Consultant Lisa Peterson
Photograph by Wally Hines Photography

Lisa Peterson, Ph.D., PE, MBA is President of Aftan Engineering and presently licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Michigan. Lisa a Sustainability Consultant, Life Cycle Management Expert, experienced Environmental Engineer, business person, and uniquely qualified to assist you with your Sustainability Initiatives.

Lisa has

  • a Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering;
  • Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Certification;
  • 30 years' engineering experience; and
  • has held high-level management positions.

Read Lisa's Resume.

Lisa Peterson's Linked IN Profile